Humans argue. 1 This distinctive feature is at the same time an important cognitive capacity and a powerful social phenomenon. It has attracted attention and
careful analysis since the dawn of civilization, being intimately related to the origin of any form of social organization, from political debates to law, and of structured thinking, from philosophy to science and arts.
As a cognitive capacity, argumentation is important for
handling conflicting beliefs, assumptions, viewpoints, opinions, goals, and many other kinds of mental attitudes. When
we are faced with a situation where we find that our information is incomplete or inconsistent, we often resort to the
use of arguments in favor and against a given position in
order to make sense of the situation. When we interact with
other people we often exchange arguments in a cooperative
or competitive fashion to reach a final agreement or to
defend and promote an individual position.
Toward Artificial Argumentation
Katie Atkinson, Pietro Baroni, Massimiliano Giacomin,
Anthony Hunter, Henry Prakken, Chris Reed, Guillermo Simari,
Matthias Thimm, Serena Villata
; The field of computational models of
argument is emerging as an important
aspect of artificial intelligence research.
The reason for this is based on the
recognition that if we are to develop
robust intelligent systems, then it is
imperative that they can handle incomplete and inconsistent information in a
way that somehow emulates the way
humans tackle such a complex task.
And one of the key ways that humans
do this is to use argumentation either
internally, by evaluating arguments and
counterarguments‚ or externally, by for
instance entering into a discussion or
debate where arguments are exchanged.
As we report in this review, recent developments in the field are leading to technology for artificial argumentation, in
the legal, medical, and e-government
domains, and interesting tools for argument mining, for debating technologies,
and for argumentation solvers are