The Case for Teamwork
We were delighted to see “No AI Is an Island: The
Case for Teaming Intelligence” highlighted in the
latest AI Magazine (Volume 40, Number 1, Spring
2019, doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v40i1.2842). The case
for teamwork is, however, not new nor as neglected
as this article suggests; it is a case we and many
others have made for three decades. AI Magazine
readers should be aware that there is a rich literature providing fundamental theories and computational models of teamwork and also empirical work
demonstrating their usefulness. Articles making and
supporting this case have appeared previously in AI
Magazine. The publications in the following list provide entry points into earlier work and this literature.
and Models of Teamwork
Grosz, B. J., and Kraus, S. 1996. Collaborative Plans
for Complex Group Action. Artificial Intelligence 86( 2):
269–357. doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702( 95)00103-4
Grosz, B. J., and Sidner, C. L. 1988. Plans for Discourse, Technical Report ADA192242. Cambridge,
MA: BBN Labs.
Grosz, B. J., and Sidner, C. L. 1990. Plans for Discourse.
In Intentions in Communications, edited by P. R. Cohen,
J. Morgan, and M. E. Pollack, 417–44. Cambridge, MA:
Jennings, N. R. 1993. Commitments and Conventions:
The Foundation of Coordination in Multi-Agent Systems. Knowledge Engineering Review 8(3): 223–50. doi.
Kinny, D.; Ljungberg, M.; Rao, A. S.; Sonenberg,
E.; Tidhar, G.; and Werner, E. 1994. Planned Team
Activity. In Artificial Social Systems, edited by C.
Castelfranchi and E. Werner, 227–56. Vol. 830. Lecture
Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Amsterdam: Springer-Verlag. doi.org/10.1007/3-540-58266-5_13
Lesser, V. 1998. Reflections on the Nature of Multi-Agent Coordination and Its Implications for an Agent
Architecture. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 1( 1): 89–111. doi.org/10.1023/A:1010046623013
Levesque, H. J.; Cohen, P. R.; and Nunes, J. H. T. 1990.
On Acting Together. In Proceedings of the Eighth National
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 94–9. Palo Alto, CA:
Rich, C., and Sidner, C. L. 1998. Collagen: A Collaboration Manager for a Collaborative Interface Agent.
User Modelling and User Assisted Interaction 8(3-4): 315–50.
Sycara, K. P.; Paolucci, M.; Van Velsen, M.; and
Giampapa, J. A. 2003. The RETSINA MAS Infrastructure. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
7( 1-2): 29–48. doi.org/10.1023/A:1024172719965
Tambe, M. 1997. Towards Flexible Teamwork.
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 7: 83–124. doi.
AI Magazine Past and Recent
Grosz, B. J. 1996. AAAI- 94 Presidential Address:
Collaborative Systems. AI Magazine 17( 2): 67–85. doi.
Grosz, B. J. 2012. What Question Would Turing Pose
Today? AI Magazine 33( 4): 73–81. doi.org/10.1609/
Rich, C.; Sidner, C.; and Lesh, N. 2001. Collagen:
Applying Collaborative Discourse Theory to Human-Computer Interaction. AI Magazine 22( 4): 15–25. doi.
Philip R. Cohen
Barbara J. Grosz
Candace L. Sidner
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Melbourne
In response to the comments, the driver behind our
writing this article was our observations of limited
teaming capabilities of many of today’s real-world
systems. Our goal was to focus specifically on real-
world applications and teaming capability out-
comes where AI technologies were deployed. We are
most certainly not claiming that research on team
intelligence is new. Nor were we attempting a survey
of teamwork research over the past three decades.
Rather, we were continuing to carry the torch of