Integrated Communications Officer (INCO) expert
system (Muratore et al. 1989). The system monitored
space shuttle telemetry data and advised flight controllers on fault detection and diagnosis. It provided
fault identification and diagnosis before the traditional INCO console could update the parameters of
the faulty unit.
The system made use of the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) Expert System Shell,
now available as open source software. 2 It was also
the first of more than 30 NASA applications reported
to date at IAAI and, as is well known, AI systems later flew in space — and navigated autonomously on
the moon and Mars.
The next two applications are intelligent assistants
that played in center ring from first deployment.
Both have been presented twice at IAAI — covering
initial deployment and a 10-year update.
1989 and 1999: Ford Motor Company
Direct Labor Management System
The Direct Labor Management System is integrated
into Ford’s Global Study Process Allocation System
(GSPAS) (O’Brien et al. 1989, Rychtyckyj 1999). Its
purpose is the automatic generation of work instruc-
tions for vehicle assembly, with associated times. It
does so by analyzing high-level structured English
descriptions. The system is also able to make accu-
rate estimates of direct versus indirect labor time and
to plan for mix/volume changes and line balancing.
It has become an integral part of Ford’s assembly
process planning business.
The natural language component in this application was one of the few from the early days. The system was implemented on the NIKL/KL-ONE (Woods
and Schmolze 1992) knowledge representation model — one of the first such applications.
Over the years, the system has undergone several
knowledge base upgrades and ports to different platforms to keep the system viable and up to date
through various organizational and business practice
changes. It was later called the Global Study Process
1995: The FinCEN Artificial Intelligence
System and 1999: The NASD Regulation
Advanced-Detection System (ADS)
Created to identify potential money laundering from
Figure 6. Top Concepts Mentioned in IAAI Papers, 1989–2016.
natural language expert system
standard deviation decision tree
relational database system architecture
search space real time data source
training set neural network training data