domain, and the domain of rules and policies. Each
of these domains affects the decision-making process
and leads to increased decision complexity. These
factors lead to a decision space that overwhelms
human decision makers and requires an AI technology solution.
Planned or proactive decisions include positioning
forces (like ships, battlegroups, and aircraft), stealth
operations, offensive attacks, and denying enemy
operations through jamming or other force measures.
Examples of reactive or responsive decisions include
defending against an active threat, moving platforms
into a defensive posture, retreating from a threat environment, and assessing battle damage. Effective battle management must recognize when proactive or
reactive decisions need automated support.
The nature of military decisions shifts over time
and can be viewed as hierarchical. Strategic decisions
have a longer time horizon and must take into con-
sideration high-level objectives — sometimes span-
ning years. Planning-level decisions have a shorter
time horizon and are proactive even when arranging
a defense. Tactical decisions, which are the main
focus of battle management, have the shortest time
horizon and involve very near-term planning or
proactive decisions as well as reactive decisions in
response to enemy actions. Consistency is desired
among the three temporal decision domains to
effect compatibility among tactical, planning, and
strategic decisions. Likewise, plans and strategies
need to support effective tactical warfare and reflect
major changes in tactical threat environments.
Automated BMAs should be designed to support a
hierarchical decision paradigm, as well as one that
supports and adapts to varying decision time hori-
One of the results of the hierarchical temporal
decision domain is a set of rules and policies that
guide tactical decisions. These rules are one of the
methods by which near-real-time decisions can align
with longer-term plans and strategies. The rules and
policies support effective tactical decisions that are
consistent with the higher objectives. Automated
decision aids must support dynamic and adaptive
decision-making across the temporal and hierarchical domain to enable consistency among levels; consideration of how changes at various levels might
affect other levels; and effective promulgation of
guidance across levels.
A fourth way to categorize battle management
Figure 7. Types of SA of Knowledge.
Object Context Picture
Estimates of the group behavior of
C2 Situation Picture
Decision-maker commands, assigned
missions of resources, doctrine, tactics,
techniques and procedures (TTPs),
status of constituent systems, status of
SoS collaborations, and so on.
Objects of Interest Picture
The location, status, and prioritization of any
objects/entities in the operational
environment that play a role in the system’s
courses of action. (that is, defended assets,
objects, or zones)
The location, health, status, configuration,
and capability information of each
constituent system and resource (sensor,
communications, weapon, device, etc.)
location, intent, attribution of
concerning area of interest.
Projection of the adversary’s
awareness of our locations
Translation of stimuli picture into
identification and characterization
of missions required by the solution space.