Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case
Western Reserve University presents a patient summary and asks for the most likely diagnosis or most
appropriate treatment (Lally et al. 2017).
Kitano (2016) discussed how AI has been driven by
the success of previous grand challenges, such as
IBM’s chess program Deep Blue defeating Kasparov,
IBM’s Watson winning on Jeopardy, and humanoid
robots eventually beating humans in RoboCup. Although these victories surpassed human efforts,
Kitano (2016) recommended a new collaborative
grand challenge to develop an AI system that can
assist in a scientific discovery that is worthy of
a Nobel Prize in the biomedical sciences.
In their article on a standard model of the mind,
Laird, Lebiere, and Rosenbloom (2017) proposed that
a fundamental hypothesis in AI is that minds are
cognitive systems that can be implemented by either
natural brains or general-purpose computers. Their
long-term objective is to develop a standard model of
a human-like mind that can serve as a common
computational framework across artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, and robotics.
The development of such a model would establish
I dedicate this article to the memory of Jeff Elman
(1948–2018), who made many contributions in ad-
vancing cognitive science as a researcher and an ad-
ministrator. Jeff had read and approved my summary
of his work in this article. I also thank anonymous
reviewers for their very helpful assistance.
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